Opel Corsa B, Combo, Tigra

Since 1993-2000 of release

Repair and car operation



Opel Corsa B, Combo, Tigra
+ Cars Opel Corsa B, Tigra and Combo
- Controls and operation receptions
   The panel of devices
   The information display
   Additional electronic devices
   Access, protection
   Salon illumination
   Elements of systems of safety of the car
   The salon equipment
   Comfort
   Operation receptions
+ Options and car routine maintenance
+ Engines
+ Systems of cooling of the engine, salon and air conditioning heating
+ Power supply systems, release and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
+ Systems of an electric equipment of the engine
+ Manual 5-step box of a gear change
+ Automatic 4-step transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment



Operation receptions

Обкатка the new car

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

To provide reliability and durability of the car in operation, throughout the first 1000 km of run it is necessary to adhere to following rules:
  1. Do not get under way from a place on full gas, avoid sharp dispersals;
  2. Do not brake too sharply. Normal extra earnings new brake колодок occurs throughout run in 200 km during which it is necessary to brake, whenever possible, smoothly and with average intensity.

After repair or engine replacement, and also after replacement brake колодок it is necessary to observe similar restrictions and recommendations.

Car refuelling

Type of applied fuel

Controls and operation receptions see.

Refuelling of a fuel tank

Gasoline is inflammable and explosive substance. Casual handling of gasoline can lead to burns or other serious traumas. At refuelling of a fuel tank switch off the engine and do not bring close to an open mouth the heated or sparking subjects, do not smoke in gas station territory. All operations on service of fuel system carry out only in the open air. At hit of splashes of gasoline on open sites of a skin or on paint and varnish surfaces кузовных elements it is necessary to wipe immediately them dry rags.

The refuelling mouth of a fuel tank is located on the left side of the car, therefore to approach to топливораздаточной to a column at a gasoline station follows the left board.

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Open лючок a refuelling mouth of a fuel tank.
  2. Slowly turning, uncover a jellied mouth.

Otvorachivanie covers it can be accompanied by the characteristic hissing sound arising at an exit from a tank of fuel evaporations.

  1. On some models presence of the special holder which settles down on an inside лючка is provided and is intended for time fastening of a cover of a mouth of a fuel tank during car refuelling.
  2. Refuelling should be stopped at once as soon as there was an automatic deenergizing of the pump топливораздаточной columns. Do not try to fill a tank over norm, - leave free space for fuel expansion at heating.
  3. Close a refuelling mouth of a fuel tank a cover and properly tighten it.
  4. Close лючок and press it for защелкивания a lock clamp.

Cowl opening

See Access, protection Has undressed.

Control operations

The control of level of impellent oil

The description of check of level of oil is resulted in the Head of Adjustment and car routine maintenance.

The control of level of a cooling liquid

The description of check of level ОЖ is resulted in the Head of Adjustment and car routine maintenance.

Transportation of cargoes in the car

The car is equipped by the several capacities intended for placing of transported subjects.

The ware branches located in salon of the car are intended for placing of small subjects. The main and additional ware boxes (see Has undressed the salon Equipment), concern their number door pockets, and also built in the panel of devices pockets.

Large-sized subjects should be placed in a car luggage space. Transportation of lengthy subjects becomes possible thanks to a collapsible design of backs of a back seat.

It is necessary to remember, however, that wrong transportation of cargoes can negatively affect controllability and stability of the car and, hence, to lower safety. Before transporting this or that cargo in the car, familiarise with the information resulted more low.

Transportation of cargoes

The maximum load-carrying capacity of the car

Excess of the maximum admissible load-carrying capacity of the car or wrong placing of cargo in can become the reason of road accident and lead травмированию and even to death being in salon of the car of the driver or passengers. Do not exceed the maximum admissible value of weight gross at car loading, and also other restrictions mentioned in the present Management.

By transportation cargoes in the car it is necessary to consider that the full weight of the car should not exceed the maximum admissible value. The full weight of the car includes: the equipped weight of the car, weight of the driver and passengers, weight of the hook-on device established on the car, and also weight of the trailer having on it. At any variants of loading of the car of loading on an axis also should not exceed limiting admissible values. The information on the maximum admissible values of full weight and axial loadings is resulted on the certified label usually fixed on a rack In the car (the Section Identification numbers of the car see).

Transportation of cargoes in car salon

Reliably fix all placed in salon of the car subjects, in order to avoid their displacement in case of road accident.

Do not place large-sized subjects on a back shelf of salon, - they narrow to the driver sector of the review and can be dumped forward at collision and sharp braking.

Be convinced of that the subjects laid on a floor behind forward seats, cannot be rolled forward and under no circumstances are not capable to prevent to manipulate freely to the driver management pedals, and also cannot break correctness of adjustment of position of forward seats and system SRS work.

Hold a ware box during movement by the closed.

Transportation of cargoes in a luggage space or on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car

Try to distribute cargo in regular intervals, placing luggage probably is closer to seats. Heavy cargoes always should settle down from below, on a luggage space floor. Reliably fix transported subjects a strong cord that they could not be displaced on the move the car. Never stack luggage above level of backs of seats.

By transportation large-sized or lengthy subjects at the combined back seats, try to fix reliably their strong cord to prevent displacement of cargo during emergency braking of the car.

The description of operations of folding of backs of back seats and their installation in a starting position is resulted in Section the salon Equipment.

In need of transportation of the lengthy subjects, not allowing to close a back door, remember that the fulfilled gases of the engine can get to car salon, - carry out corresponding safety measures (see Has undressed the salon Equipment).

At cargo placing on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car, track, that the cumulative weight of luggage did not exceed admissible value. Remember that the centre of weight of the car at loading of the top luggage carrier is displaced, and running characteristics of the car vary.

Engine start

Petrol models

Standard start

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Cock a lay brake.
  2. At low temperature of air switch off all auxiliary consumers of electric energy to reduce loading by the storage battery.
  3. On equipped РКПП models squeeze out a coupling pedal against the stop and include neutral transfer.
  4. On models with АТ make sure that the selector lever is established in position Р or N and squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake.
  5. Without squeezing out a gas pedal, turn a key in the ignition lock in position III and include a starter. If the engine was not started at once, continue to scroll a cranked shaft a starter, remembering that duration of continuous functioning of a starter should not exceed 15 seconds. Repeated attempt of start should be made after not less than ten seconds, - the pause is necessary for cooling of the electromotor of a starter.
  6. If the engine does not manage to be started at continuous work of a starter within 15 seconds, or the started engine at once глохнет, try to execute start at the pedal of gas squeezed out to a half. After successful start of the engine release a gas pedal to avoid sharp increase of turns.
  7. If to start the engine still it is not possible, completely squeeze out a pedal of gas and keep it in the pressed position during all time of functioning of a starter, is will help to remove the superfluous fuel which has got to the inlet pipeline and cylinders of the engine. Duration of continuous work of a starter, as well as in the previous cases, should not exceed 15 seconds. If the engine is not started after a purge of cylinders, once again try to start it at partially squeezed out pedal of gas. Right after start realisation release a pedal.
  8. Activation of a corresponding control lamp testifies to system operation иммобилизации start on an instrument guard of the car (see Has undressed the Panel of devices), - turn a key to the left and take it from the lock, then repeat attempt.

Features of start of the engine in cold weather in the conditions of high mountains (height above sea level more than 2400)

At low temperature of air engine start is at a loss. In the conditions of high mountains where air is strongly discharged, engine start becomes complicated in addition. Instructions which is necessary for following at engine start in considered conditions are more low resulted.

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Switch off all auxiliary consumers of electric energy to reduce loading by the storage battery.
  2. Squeeze out to half pedal of gas and keep it in this position during all time прокручивания a cranked shaft of the engine a starter. Duration of continuous inclusion of a starter should not exceed 15 seconds. After realisation of successful start of the engine gradually release a gas pedal, without supposing substantial increase of turns.
  3. If the engine is not started, squeeze out a gas pedal against the stop and keep it in the pressed position during all time of functioning of a starter. Duration of continuous work of a starter, as well as in the previous case, should not exceed 15 seconds. If the engine still is not started, repeat the attempt described above.
  4. At negative temperature of air or if the car was not used within several days, allow to the engine to get warm during 3 4 minutes, only after that begin movement.

Diesel models

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Cock a lay brake.
  2. Switch off all auxiliary consumers of electric energy to reduce loading by the storage battery.
  3. On equipped РКПП models squeeze out a coupling pedal against the stop and include neutral transfer.
  4. On models with АТ make sure that the selector lever is established in position Р or N and squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake.
  5. Without squeezing out a gas pedal, turn a key in the ignition lock in position II, wait deenergizings of a control lamp of preheat (see Has undressed the Panel of devices), then turn a key in position III and carry out engine start.
  6. Before to make repeated attempt of start a key it is necessary to return in position • and to take from the lock.

Five-step manual box of a gear change

At movement on road with a slippery covering intensive braking by the engine or unduly sharp dispersal can lead to control loss over the car and failures therefore can appear are seriously injured people being in the car. Extra care observe at movement on road with a covering, not providing due coupling with car wheels.

For maintenance of smooth and unaccented switching all transfers of a forward course are synchronised. After transfer of the lever of switching of a transmission in position of the following transfer smoothly release a coupling pedal. During movement on the chosen transfer completely remove a foot from a pedal of coupling in order to avoid premature deterioration of components of coupling.

Include backing transfer only after a full stop of the car. Attempt include a backspacing on the move can to lead to serious damage of a transmission. Before reverse gear inclusion completely switch off coupling and sustain short (in some seconds) a pause.

Instead of a pause it is possible to make short inclusion of one of forward transfers. The described receptions of inclusion of a backing allow to prevent shock inclusion of a reverse gear because of residual rotation of gear wheels.

For car delay it is possible to take advantage of braking by the engine, having switched a transmission to one of the lowered steps. Braking by the engine allows to supervise speed of movement of the car at safe level and prevents an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents with a considerable bias. Switch a transmission to the lowered steps consistently, in process of decrease in speed not to admit excess of as much as possible admissible frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft. The arrow of a tachometre should not come into a red zone of a scale. In all cases it is necessary to be guided by values of the maximum admissible speed of the car on corresponding transfers.

The recommended moments of a gear change

Try to move on as much as possible high transfer providing in concrete road conditions normal functioning of the engine at uniform movement and possibility of smooth dispersal of the car. Following of this recommendation will provide high profitability of the car and effective work of system EGR. At movement in a city 4th transfer it is necessary to include of 50 km/h at achievement of speed.

As much as possible admissible speeds of movement of the car on various transfers

Watch timeliness of a gear change, - try not to suppose calling of an arrow of a tachometre in the range of a measuring scale allocated with red colour.

In order to avoid engine breakage before transfer switching, be convinced that the arrow of a tachometre does not exceed as much as possible admissible speed of movement on the given transfer and is not in a red zone of a scale.

Automatic transmission

On cars of the considered mark the four-stage hydromechanical automatic transmission with an elektronno-hydraulic control system is established. The control system of a transmission provides timely and smooth switching of all steps of a forward course.

Positions of the lever of the selector of ranges

The lever of the selector of ranges АТ can be in one of seven fixed positions At start of the engine the lever should be only in position P or N. Moving of the lever to position P and from it, and also in position R, is possible only at the lifted clamp located under the handle of the lever If a stop of the car is made, when in АТ one of movement ranges D is included, 3, 2, 1, R, or N, it is necessary to release completely a pedal of gas and to squeeze out a pedal of a brake for reliable braking of the car.

Positions of the lever of selector AT

At switching of ranges of an automatic transmission move the lever along a directing groove. The lever of switching of ranges is blocked in position Р if the ignition key will turn in position O or I. In this case the conclusion of the lever from position Р is impossible even at squeezing of a pedal of a brake.

Position Р. In this position of the lever of the selector of ranges АТ there is a mechanical blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission. Always translate the lever of the selector of ranges in position Р at deenergizing or engine start. To deduce the lever of the selector of ranges from position Р, it is necessary to squeeze out a brake pedal, preliminary having released a gas pedal. Pull upwards a clamp and deduce the lever from position Р. If after performance of all listed above actions still it is not possible to deduce the lever from position Р, it is necessary to unblock it, following the instructions stated more low.

Position R. Receptions of management by the lever of the selector of ranges АТ while translating it in position R (Backing) from position Р are described above. Lever inclusion in position R from position N make only after a full stop of the car.
АТ are usually equipped with a special safety device which does not allow to move casually the lever to position R if speed of the car exceeds value 10 12 km/h.
If the backing does not join after a full stop of the car, squeeze out a pedal of a brake and slowly move the lever of the selector of ranges АТ at first to position N, then in position R.
At malfunction of a safety device, and also at disconnected from an onboard network or the discharged storage battery to include a backing range it is impossible. In this case it is necessary to remove blocking of inclusion of a range of a backing, following instructions stated more low.

Position N. Use position N at start of the decayed engine on the move and at short stops of the car with working engine. If for any reason it is necessary to depart from the car, preliminary translate the lever of the selector of ranges in position Р. At a conclusion of the lever of position N squeeze out a brake pedal.

At start of the engine N it is necessary to squeeze out of position in addition a pedal of a foot brake, or to cock a lay brake.

Electronic control system АТ for the purpose of economy of the expense of fuel provides automatic internal switching of a box in position N at a finding of the lever of the selector in position D, 3, 2 and 1 when the gas pedal is released, the car the pedal of a foot brake (for example, parking on a traffic light) is motionless and squeezed out. Otpuskanie brakes and activation of a pedal of gas results троганию the car from a place.

Position D. In this position the lever of the selector of ranges should be constantly at car movement in normal road conditions. In a range D the automatic gear change of a forward course in all range of transfers depending on speed of movement of the car and degree of pressing an accelerator pedal is provided. During car movement it is possible to notice that automatic switchings on the higher transfers occurs later, that is at higher speeds of movement if the car engine is yet heated-up to normal working temperature. The given function provides faster warming up of the engine.

Position 3. If the lever of the selector of ranges is included in position 3, АТ functions to a similar case of inclusion of a range D. Difference consists that transition to the fourth transfer is excluded. The range 3 is recommended to be used at trailer towage in hilly district or for realisation of braking by the engine on descent of a considerable steepness. Inclusion of a range 3 is useful also for an exception of superfluous cyclic switchings АТ between the third and fourth transfers, for example, at movement in a dense transport stream with frequent delays and car stops.
For sharp dispersal of the car at transmission work in a range D or 3 squeeze out a gas pedal against the stop. Thus АТ will automatically pass to adjacent lowest transfer (a mode kickdown). If speed of the car is insignificant, the transmission can be switched at once on two steps downwards.

Position 2. At inclusion of a range 2 possibility of switching of transmission on transfers above 2nd step is blocked.
At inclusion of a range 2 on the move the car inclusion of the second transfer automatically is late and occurs only after speed of the car will decrease to safe level on which frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine will not exceed as much as possible admissible value.

Position 1. At inclusion of a range 1 АТ will constantly work on the first transfer. If inclusion of a range 1 is made for the speed more than 50 km/h transmission at first will be switched to the second transfer. Inclusion of an intermediate step allows to exclude sharp and unexpected braking by the engine.

The maximum admissible speeds of movement of the car

At excess of the maximum admissible values of speeds of a gear change of the marksman of a tachometre comes into a red zone of a scale, specifying in excess of admissible turns of the engine. Thus ECU starts to limit turns of a cranked shaft, reducing fuel giving that it is possible to feel on power setting change. Engine work settles into shape, as soon as the arrow of a tachometre leaves a red zone of a scale.

In order to avoid engine breakage before transfer switching, be convinced that the arrow of a tachometre does not come for value of as much as possible admissible speed of movement on the given transfer and is not in a red zone of a scale.

Sports mode of functioning АТ

While translating АТ in a sports mode the gear change occurs at the raised turns of the engine. Transfer is carried out by means of the push-button switch S which has been built in in the handle of the lever of the selector and accompanied by operation of the control lamp which have been built in in a combination of devices over a measuring instrument of the expense of fuel. For return to an economic mode of functioning of transmission it is necessary to press button S repeatedly.

The button and control lamp of activation of sports mode АТ

Winter mode of functioning АТ

In a winter mode of functioning АТ трогание the car from a place occurs on 3rd transfer. Mode activation is made by means of equipped with the built in control lamp and selector AT of the push-button switch located to the right of the lever with the pictogramme put from above in the form of a snowflake. Start of engines X14NZ and X14XE is possible in position D. Start of engines X12XE, C14SEL and C16SEL is possible in positions P, R, N, D and 3.

Deenergizing of a winter mode on engines X12XE, C14SEL and C16SEL occurs by repeated pressing the switch button, transfer of the lever of the selector in position 2 or 1, and also at ignition deenergizing. On engines X14NZ and X14XE deenergizing of a winter mode occurs also at speed above 80 km/h, sharp pressing a pedal of gas during more than 2 seconds, and also while translating the selector lever in position P, 3, 2 or 1. For the purpose of protection of transmission against internal damages automatic deenergizing of a winter mode occurs also at overheats ATF.

Activation of winter mode АТ

Deenergizing of blocking of the lever of the selector of ranges

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

At switching-off of power supplies or an excessive discharge of the storage battery the conclusion of the lever of the selector from position Р becomes impossible. For an exit from the given situation and removal of blocking of the lever operate as follows:
  1. Switch off ignition and cock a lay brake;
  2. Release clamps and move on 90 hailstones. To the right a protective cover of the lever of the selector
  3. Small screw-driver or other suitable tool cautiously wring out forward a stopper and deduce the lever from position Р
  4. Lower a protective cover and fix it in the console panel;

Отпускание a stopper blocking the lever of the selector in position Р

For prevention of repeated blocking of the lever in position Р eliminate the reason of faults of a food.

Refusals of functioning АТ

Operation of a corresponding control lamp testifies to malfunctions АТ on a combination of devices

At refusals of automatic switching of transmission the further movement can be continued in emergency operation, carrying out a gear change manually by means of the selector lever. Thus inclusion of 2nd transfer and switching is completely blocked occurs 1-3-4. The following scheme of a parity of positions of the lever Thus takes place:
1 — 1st transfer
2 — 3rd transfer
3— 4th transfer
D— 4th transfer
N— The Neutral
R— The Backspacing
Р — Parking position

For elimination of causes of failures АТ address to experts of car-care centre.

At jamming

For clearing got stuck in sand, a dirt, etc. the car, at slightly pressed pedal of gas translate the selector lever between positions D and R. Thus engine turns should be is minimum possible. Apply the given function only in exceptional cases.

Car parking

Leaving the car on parking, always cock a lay brake. Remember that built in in instrument guard К/Л of inclusion of a lay brake, serves only for a reminder to the driver about necessity отпускания the last before a start of motion. Burning of a control lamp does not guarantee completeness of raising of a lay brake. In order to avoid spontaneous скатывания the car on a bias be convinced that the lay brake is cocked properly.

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. At first it is necessary to cock a lay brake, and then to include the first or a reverse gear (models with РКПП) / to translate the lever of the selector of ranges of an automatic transmission in position Р. Such sequence of actions prevents casual трогание the car, and on models with АТ also excludes transfer of considerable loading on the mechanism of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission from скатывающей the force car, - unloading муфты blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission provides at the subsequent трогании the car simplicity of a conclusion of the lever from position Р.
  2. At a car parking on lifting, develop forward wheels aside from a border; at a parking on descent - to a border.
  3. Before a start of motion, be convinced that the lay brake is completely released. At movement with not completely released lay brake the overheat and failure of brake mechanisms of back wheels is possible. Besides, it can lead to infringement of serviceability of functioning ABS.

The recommendation about a safe parking of the car

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Track, that сдвижная the panel of a roof and all windows have been closed.
  2. Switch off all devices of illumination.
  3. Put luggage and valuable things in closed branches, or take them with itself.
  4. Lock locks of doors. On the models equipped with anticreeping system, make sure of inclusion of the indicator of system on the instrument panel which testifies to device activation.
  5. Do not leave the car with working engine on the platforms covered with dry foliage, a high grass or other combustible materials. Remember that the case каталитического the converter can be heated to very heat that is fraught with ignition.

Brake system

The general information

The general information on brake system is resulted in the Head Brake system.

Lay brake

The lay brake has a drive on back wheels of the car. The lever of raising of a lay brake is located in a back part of the central console between forward seats of the car. Raising of a lay brake is accompanied by operation of a corresponding control lamp on a combination of devices (see Has undressed the Panel of devices), - do not forget to release before a start of motion a lay brake, preliminary having pressed the button located at a forward end face of the lever of a lay brake.

Recommendations about security measures at operation of the models equipped ABS

ABS does not reduce a brake way of the car and it is capable to provide only preservation of controllability of the car in the course of braking. In view of told it is necessary to support constantly a safe distance to ahead going vehicle, proceeding from speed of the car and concrete traffic conditions.

ABS does not prevent lateral юз at sharp change of a direction of movement of the car. For example, the car can enter into drift at turn passage on too high speed or at jerk of a wheel during lane change. Always support safe speed of a vehicle, being conformed to a condition of a road covering and traffic conditions.

ABS does not prevent loss of course stability of the car. In the course of emergency braking avoid sharp jerks of a steering wheel.

The brake way equipped ABS the car can exceed a little habitual for models with usual brake system. Told especially considerably at movement on fragile and rough road coverings (gravel, snow). At movement in similar road conditions lower speed and increase a distance to ahead going vehicle.

Control lamp of infringements of functioning ABS

The self-diagnostics block is included in structure of system of antiblocking. Outwardly procedure of self-diagnostics of system is shown by small pulsations of a foot brake right after engine start. Problem diagnostics ABS is made also at each braking of the car.

At revealing by system of any malfunction on a control panel the corresponding control lamp lights up. Operation of a control lamp testifies that ABS is disconnected. Thus working capacity of working brake system remains to the full, except for function of automatic control of brake effort which is carried out ABS. If control lamp ABS does not die away after start of the engine or joins in movement time, it is necessary to address at the first possibility on the nearest car repair shop.

Joint inclusion of control lamps ABS and refusals of brake system (raising of a lay brake) also means switching-off of function of regulation of brake effort that specifies in presence of malfunctions both in ABS, and in brake system. Thus the brake system of the car will continue to provide adequate enough braking of the car, however it is necessary to avoid sharp squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake. Immediately address on the nearest car repair shop.

Recommendations about car driving in adverse weather conditions

Features of driving in adverse road conditions

Driving during a rain, in a strong fog or a snowfall demands from the driver of special skills, in view of decrease in coupling of wheels with a road covering and visibility deterioration. Constantly support the car in technically working order. At fulfilment of trips to bad weather observe extra care.

Lower speed and move more slowly, than usually in normal weather conditions on a dry road covering. Remember that reactions of the car to management will be more languid and slowed down even if the road covering looks only slightly damp. Try to influence all controls of the car smoothly. On a wet and slippery road covering sharp jerk of a steering wheel or careless squeezing of a brake pedal can lead to control loss over management. In the trip beginning, still completely without having adapted for adverse weather conditions, show the raised care. This rule is especially useful for observing at movement during a snowfall. It is necessary to remember that at car operation in a warm season many useful skills of driving of the car on a slippery road covering are forgotten that demands some time for their restoration.

Extra care show, operating the car during a rain as absence of practice during the dry period does not allow to be reconstructed and adapt a bridle manner for new conditions quickly.

The first rains after the long dry period do a road covering especially slippery.

The review

For safety of traffic in any weather conditions it is very important to have the good review in all directions. Your car should remain always to well appreciable drivers of other vehicles, - remember that at movement on a line passing light inclusion never will prevent, even in the daytime. These requirements are more difficult for executing in adverse weather conditions.

Regularly check a condition of brushes of screen wipers and snuffled windscreen washers. Constantly support demanded level of a cooling liquid in its tank. Use for refuelling of system of washing of glasses only the liquids, recommended marks. Watch a condition of working elements of screen wipers, make their replacement as soon as brushes cease to clear glass properly. For prevention of condensation of a moisture on an internal surface of glasses use having blown in glasses air, in case of need include air conditioner.

Coupling of tyres with a road covering

Regularly supervise pressure of air in tyres and degree of a deterioration of protectors of tyres (depth of a pattern). Both these of the factor are extremely important from the point of view of good coupling of tyres with a road covering and prevention of the phenomenon of hydroplaning, that is sharp reduction of coupling with road at entrance to pools. For maintenance of the best controllability with the car and traffic safety at approach of a winter season use шипованную rubber.

During movement constantly observe of changes of road conditions which frequently appear very astable. Presence on road of wet foliage can be not less dangerous, than a glaze ice. Often in appearance the pure and dry road covering can обледеневать separate sites. Especially dangerous conditions develop at air temperatures nearby 0 hailstones., when pools can alternate with наледью that does behaviour of the car especially unpredictable.

Be cautious at switching of an automatic transmission in the lowered range. On a slippery covering sharp inclusion of a hill-climbing gear can lead to short-term proslipping of driving wheels and car drift

Extra care and attention are required from the driver at fulfilment of overtakings. Equally it is necessary to observe attentiveness, at overtaking of your car by other vehicles. Splashes of water and a dirt from under wheels of an overtaken lorry can sharply worsen visibility through a windscreen. The impulse of a lateral wind during fulfilment of overtaking of the truck or the bus is dangerous control loss over management.

Trailer towage

Wrong placing of luggage, and also transportation of too heavy cargoes on the car or the towed trailer can worsen considerably controllability and brake properties of transport means/lorry convoy that is fraught with emergency creation on roads. Before a start of motion always attentively check correctness of loading of the car and the trailer.

Models of cars considered in the present Management first of all are, of course, passenger and are intended for transportation of people and their luggage. However, at obligatory observance of some the general rules which are resulted more low, cars Opel can be used also with success for trailer towage.

The full weight of the trailer including its own weight and weight of cargo placed in it, should not exceed limiting admissible weight of the towed trailer Limiting admissible weight of the trailer depends on that, it is equipped by brake mechanisms, or not.

The maximum vertical loading on the hook-on device of the car at full weight of the trailer should not exceed 50 кГс. For trailers with full weight to 500 kg it is necessary to adhere to a following rule: vertical loading on a turnbuckle should make approximately 10 % from full weight of the trailer. Adjust loading on a car turnbuckle, in appropriate way placing cargo on the trailer. To begin with it is recommended to place cargo so that approximately 60 % of its weight were ahead of a trailer axis, and 40 % - behind. If the full weight of the trailer exceeds 500 kg, try to distribute cargo on length of the trailer in regular more intervals. Never load the trailer so that the back part of the trailer outweighed a lobby, is leads to unloading of back wheels of the car that worsens coupling of tyres with a road covering.

Full weights of the car and the towed trailer should not exceed corresponding maximum admissible values.

The full weight of the car includes: the equipped weight of the car, weight of the driver, passengers and luggage, weight of the hook-on device and weight of the trailer having on it. Remember that the weight of the additional equipment established on the car and the weight of the trailer having on a turnbuckle (at trailer towage), reduce useful load-carrying capacity of a vehicle by corresponding sizes.

The most reliable way of check of correctness of loading of the car and the trailer is weighing. Load the car and the trailer how they are usually maintained as a part of the lorry convoy, and weigh them on cargo scales. Define values of full weights of the car and the trailer, and also the weights having on an axis of the car and the trailer. Compare results of measurements to rating values.

The hook-on device

Installation of the hook-on devices which are not corresponding on the standard sizes массогабаритным to characteristics of the trailer, or incorrectly established on the car, can become the damage reason кузовных vehicle elements.

The design of the hook-on device intended for installation on your car should meet completely to the necessary requirements, in case of need consult on company Opel car repair shop.

The hook-on device should fasten in the several specially provided points on the basis of a car body that loadings from the towed trailer were distributed in regular more intervals and had on elements of strengthening of a body. It is forbidden to mount the hook-on devices leaning only on a back bumper which is not intended for perception of similar loadings on the car. Turnbuckle installation should be made car-care centre qualified personnel.

Rear-view mirrors

Towage of the large-sized trailer (type "Caravan") usually demands installation on the car of additional rear-view mirrors with the extended arms. Specify requirements of the local legislation and the traffic Rules, concerning towages of trailers by cars. Attach the trailer to the car and estimate degree of deterioration of the back review through standard rear-view mirrors. If the review unsatisfactory from safety reasons it is necessary to equip the special mirrors, providing to the driver the adequate review of space behind the car.

Joining of the trailer to the car

If you are going to get the trailer equipped with brake mechanisms, be convinced that they have an electric drive of management, - the design of a hydraulic drive of working brake system of your car does not provide connection possibility to it of any additional contours, in particular, for actuating of brake mechanisms of the trailer. Any way of joining to a brake hydrodrive of the car of brake system of the trailer, what attractive it would not seem, will lead to deterioration of efficiency of braking of the car and traffic safety decrease.

Attaching the trailer to the car, always use a safety chain. The ends of a safety chain should be reliably fixed to corresponding places on дышле the trailer and on the hook-on device of the car. Track, that the chain passed under дышлом the trailer, is will prevent falling of the forward end дышла on road to a case рассоединения сцепки. The free length of a chain should be sufficient not to disturb to fulfilment of turns of the lorry convoy with the minimum radiuses, however, it is not necessary to suppose chain drawings by the ground.

Devices of external illumination and the alarm system on the trailer

As on trailers of various marks the various lining of electroconducting can be used, it is necessary to charge the turnbuckle equipment to experts of car-care centre. In certain cases adapter installation can be demanded.

Before connecting a trailer electric equipment to the car electric system, necessarily consult on a car repair shop.

Preparation for trailer towage

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Before a start of motion it is necessary to make control survey and car and trailer check.
  2. Measure the vertical loading having on the hook-on device, - take advantage of usual floor scales.
  3. Check up reliability of fastening дышла the trailer and a safety chain.
  4. Check up a technical condition of tyres and pressure of air in tyres on the car and the trailer. The lowered pressure of air in tyres considerably worsens controllability of the car and the lorry convoy. At the same time check a condition and pressure of air in a spare wheel.
  5. Completely having loaded and having attached the trailer to the car, make sure of absence excessive проседания a back part of the car, - in case of need cargo in the car/trailer.
  6. Check up serviceability of functioning of devices of external illumination and the alarm system on the car and the trailer.
  7. Specify operating restrictions ПДД on the maximum speed of movement of the lorry convoy as a part of the car and the trailer. Planning to make a trip on the several countries, in advance familiarise with features of local requirements and the restrictions, concerning towages of the trailer by the car as in each country the restrictions can operate.

In the European countries restriction of speed of movement of the lorry convoy as a part of the car and the trailer is established at level of 100 km/h.

Security measures at trailer towage

It is necessary to consider that the brake way of the car towing the trailer, increases. Therefore, moving with the trailer, you should support the increased distance to ahead going car. Try to avoid sharp braking and turns. It can lead to folding of the lorry convoy or even переворачиванию the trailer.

Remember that the length of the lorry convoy considerably exceeds length of the single car. At turn to the right leave between edge of a carriageway and wheels of the right board of the car considerably большее distance, than usually to avoid arrival by trailer wheels on a border. Consider that at turn of the lorry convoy the trailer moves on an arch of smaller radius, than the car, and can drive or face an obstacle which the car freely passed. At overtaking of other vehicle do not hurry up to come back in the number as it can lead to collision of the overtaken car with the trailer.

The lorry convoy, in comparison with the single car, is more sensitive to action of impulses of a lateral wind and aerodynamic indignations from other cars. If you are overtaken at great speed by the heavy truck or the lorry convoy, try to support rectilinear and uniform movement of the car. To reduce the aerodynamic indignations operating on the lorry convoy from ahead going car, lower speed to leave a turbulent stream.

At towage of the trailer loading increases by all basic units and car systems. Therefore at frequent use of the car for trailer towage it is necessary to spend periodic maintenance service of the car according to regulations, characteristic for intense service conditions

Additional loading on the car even more increases at lorry convoy operation in hilly district. At overcoming of long liftings watch closely a temperature mode of the engine on стрелочному to the index on a control panel. At approach of an arrow of the index to an overheat zone, switch off air conditioner (if it is equipped and included) and continue movement. If the temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine does not decrease, or continues to raise, stop on a roadside of road and allow to the engine to cool down.

Air conditioner should be switched off also at prompt increase in speed at descent at movement in hilly or a hilly terrain. If the temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine constantly raises at movement on the second transfer, lower speed of movement below a mark of 60 km/h.

At movement in hilly or a hilly terrain cyclic switching of the third and fourth transfers of automatic transmission can be observed. In this case it is necessary to pass in the lowered range 3 that will prevent an overheat and excessive deterioration of details of frictional elements АТ. In order to avoid an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents use braking by the engine. For effective braking by the engine include the lowered range or one of the lowest steps of an automatic transmission.

At a lorry convoy stop on lifting do not keep it on a place by pressing педели gas, is can lead to overheat АТ. Use working brake system, or a lay brake.

At management of automatic transmission in a manual mode use the third, second and first transfers, being conformed to speed of movement of the car and road conditions. Towing the trailer, do not include the fourth transfer. In Specifications recommended high-speed ranges for use of various steps of a transmission are resulted.

At lorry convoy statement on long parking, especially on descent or lifting, accept all safety measures for reliable braking of the car and the trailer. Turn forward wheels of the car so that at скатывании lorry convoys they have rested in бордюрный a stone. Completely cock a lay brake and translate the lever of the selector of ranges in position Р. On equipped РКПП models include the first, or a reverse gear. In addition enclose under both wheels of the trailer противооткатные boots.

Management of the lorry convoy at movement by a backing presents certain difficulties and demands from the driver of special skills and training. Move a backing cautiously and slowly, do not rotate unduly quickly a steering wheel. At maneuvering by a backing in the constrained conditions it is useful, that someone, standing outside, watched movings of the trailer and directed your actions. Keep in mind that at steering wheel rotation clockwise (to the right) the trailer moves to the left, and on the contrary. At maneuvering of the lorry convoy by a backing it is recommended to keep for a steering wheel rim from below (instead of from above, as usually, at movement by a forward course). At such successful fellow habitual conformity between a direction of turn of a steering wheel and trailer movement remains: hand displacement to the left leads to trailer turn also to the left and on the contrary.